How to cite in a research paper?

When writing a research paper, the correct design of the text is no less important than its semantic load. In particular, it concerns quotes. Students can choose from the most common texts. Next, we will examine in detail how to quote in the paper and give some practical examples.

General guidelines for how to cite in a research paper

Abuse of direct quotations is a sign of low-quality research paper reflecting its “bloated” volume. In addition, non-unique quoted passages reduce the overall uniqueness of the paper. And this is unsatisfactory; its value leads to a decrease in the student’s score.

Large quotations are permissible only in exceptional cases, for example, when it is necessary to analyze excerpts from works of art, to consider author’s means of artistic expression, manner of presentation, etc.

Citing references is not always appropriate. References to such literature are permitted only in the introduction and, if necessary, the definition of terms.

How to cite in a research paper: the most common ways

There are two types of citations:

  • direct
  • indirect

In turn, direct quotes can be entered into the text of the work:

  • with indication of the author
  • with reference to the author and source

Next, we consider all the ways of quoting in research papers in more detail.

Indirect quoting for how to cite in a research paper

By design, this method is the easiest. Quote can be changed, use it literally optional. A student can quote in his own words.

The quote is in quotes.

If in the sentence the text is in front of it, then a colon is put in front of it.

If the text is after it, then after it is written with a small letter.

This can be linked to various parties with a colon, a comma and a dash, respectively.

How to give an incomplete quote? Sometimes it is necessary to quote without available parts of it. In this case, the words that are omitted are replaced by a triple-point. Such a design can be located at any place of separation – at the end, in the middle or at the very beginning. At the beginning of the phrase, its continuation is written with a small letter. In one quote several passages can be replaced at once, at the discretion of the author of the work.

What is an abstract in a research paper?

Students are well aware that the research paper is the first step to scientific work, the first small, independently conducted study. And, of course, if the work is scientific, then everything should correspond to its creation – from preparation to defense. These and other points will be discussed in this material on the topic of how to make an paper.

What is an abstract in a research paper?

Consider the points of what is an abstract in a research paper – where to start and how to finish:

• Choose a topic. If the teacher did not specifically give the topic, in her choice, first of all, be guided by your own interests, by the quantity, content and understanding of literary sources popular books). Your topic, by the way, is the title of the paper. In the process of working on it, the wording can be changed. And although many people mistakenly believe that the abstract is a synopsis of several scientific papers, it’s still not true: it should include (and this is very important!) Your independent developments, thoughts, observations. This applies even to the most “worn out” topics or experiments, you still need to find newness in this – in your own approach or in solving a problem and in revealing a topic. Do not take a very broad topic and extremely narrow – the work in this case may slow down. In this case, you should be well versed in scientific terminology on the subject of the abstract.

• We make a plan. This item may sound like a “content”, that is, you outline a rough outline of the questions you are going to consider in the abstract. It can be simple and complex. Of course, it is more convenient to make a complex plan, in which you detail-split the topic. On the points of this plan, look for material in books and on the Internet. In simple terms, there must be at least 5 points, in a complex one – the same main 5 points, plus at least 2 sub-points in each section of the main part. Obligatory elements of the abstract: introduction, main sections (at least 2, in each of which there are 2-3 subsections), conclusions and references (from 5 sources). There may be applications.

• In the introduction (in terms of 1-2 pages) you name a subject or object (what are you researching?), Write about the purpose and objectives of the work (Purpose: describe, study literary sources, analyze. methods (This was done-achieved in this way), do not forget to tell why the topic seemed promising for you and what you personally contributed to it (I managed to achieve such results …).

• Abstract writing style – impersonal sentences, the use of the pronoun “we” instead of “me”. Do not stretch the paragraphs and do not over-complicate the sentences.

How to write an abstract for a research paper?

Since writing a research paper is a process in which the skills of independent work are formed, it is very important to consider each stage of the procedure. Its spelling implies:

  • systematization of information;
  • use of multiple sources;
  • lack of literal copied information;
  • submission of data not in the format of the outline.

How to write an abstract for a research paper when the topic is already selected? Where to start first? First you need to pick up the material. You can do this:

  • through sites on the Internet, choosing electronic scientific articles and textbooks;
  • with the help of libraries, where you can still find and useful periodicals;
  • through receiving information from the teacher.

When most of the material is found, you can proceed to the formation of a work plan and directly writing the project.

Nuances of work on how to write an abstract for a research paper?

The key rules for the preparation of the abstract are compliance with the volume, structure and features of the work. As for the amount of work, it usually varies between 7-15 pages. If the topic is very complex, then its disclosure can take up to 20 pages.

The structure of the paper deserves special attention. It is presented as follows:

  • title page;
  • structured content;
  • detailed plan;
  • introduction unit;
  • main part;
  • final block;
  • an application listing the references used.

It is very important that all pages of the project are numbered. The number is not affixed to the title page only.

As for the table of contents, it must necessarily contain a complete list of not only chapters, but also subtitles. It is necessary to designate the pages to them. In the introductory part of the essay it is not necessary to immerse in the problem thoroughly. It will be enough just to highlight its essence and relevance. This can take just one paragraph of text. The requirements for the design of the work usually indicate that the introduction should not take more than 1-1.5 pages. The most difficult and important for writing is the main block. Before you start it, you need to make a detailed plan. This will become a kind of skeleton, in which chapters and paragraphs will be highlighted. If the text of the work will be used quotes, you will certainly need to make links, pointing to the source.

How to write a literature review for a research paper?

Perhaps you think how to write a literature review for a research paper is enough to read a book, and then just say whether you like it or not. This is not true. This learn about is a evaluate of a range of publications on the same topic, ranging from a series of books and ending with shorter works, such as brochures. Sometimes a literature assessment is section of a large research effort. His intention is to forestall duplication of efforts, unravel contradictions, and also chart a course for similarly research. How to write a literature review for a research paper?

Start with a confident introduction. As with everything, the first impression is important here. Your introduction should give an idea of ​​the topic of your review, whether it is designed thematically or according to a template.

• Help the reader – let him know what awaits him. If you are using these statements, put them at the end of your introductory paragraph. In the end, the reader must anticipate the bulk of your research.

Organize the main part of the review. This is the part where there is between what to choose. You have a number of sources and, since they are all on the same topic, they probably have a lot in common. Choose any method that seems most natural to you to convey your basic thought.

• Build work in chronological order. If you are dealing with different opinions during an epoch or changing trends over time, the chronological order will be more appropriate.

• Build the work as a publication. This organizational method is appropriate if each publication has a different point of view. If between sources there is a natural development (for example, from radical to conservative), this method will work.

• Make work on trends. If you notice patterns in the sources, their location along the trends that they support may be the most obvious structure. Some sources may together support the same trend, which moves from epoch to epoch, from region to region.

• Use structure by topic. It largely depends on the thesis statement and on the sources selected. If you chose an abstract main theme (for example, “Colonialism is evil”), you can arrange the subsections to reveal the topic in accordance with the methods used.

Make a clear conclusion. In the final paragraph, you must give a brief conclusion of your work, repeat what was said in the introduction (introductory part), and discuss what new things you learned during your research.

• You can make a suggestive conclusion. How can the discussion evolve if anyone else continues? What are the results of the patterns today?

How to cite a research paper?

Proper citation of the research paper is quite an important and interesting question for many. The classical structure of the work helps to focus attention on its content side. Many people know such a rule that the form should, if possible, correspond to the content. You have to know how to cite a research paper.

There is a specific order of how to cite a research paper.

  • Name of author (or group of authors) quotes in strict accordance with the main source.
  • The full name of the source (if there is a subtitle, it is mentioned after the colon).
  • After the dot and dash, the city in which the book was published is mentioned.
  • Then the name of the publisher that issued the copy.
  • The year in which the book was put into print.

Checking the availability of citations and references to sources is a fairly significant part of the academic work being done. In quoting, there are also certain rules that allow you to correctly enter a quote in the text and make them unified.

  • If the quotation is in prices with a lowercase letter, it must be understood that the quotation itself is blanketed in the subordinate clause after the “what” union.
  • If the quote is written with a capital letter, it is fundamental to apprehend that this is a way of quoting an indivisible, small in its dimension passage (the entire sentence, or part of it).
  • If the citation is given in quotes, then it ought to be understood that the creator of the study is of the same opinion with the writer of the source and their views in this case are certainly similar.
  • When quoting without quotes, after a colon, you be aware of that the quoted phase has a large quantity or is a poetic work.

In this case, the text of the cited object is typed in a smaller font, highlighted in a separate paragraph, and its boundaries are indicated by large indents, which distinguish it from the main part of the document. When making a poetic text in this way, it is placed in the center of the page with a slight shift to the left side. If the volume of the poetic text is less than three lines, then it is quoted according to the general rules outlined above.

For a direct quote, the quoted text must be enclosed in quotes.

When presenting a quote in your own words, a reference to the original source of thought is necessary and also obligatory.

If the text is cited not from the original source, but from a borrowed source, a borrowed citation is made, which indicates the direct source of the borrowing of the text or thought.