How to cite in a research paper?

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When writing a research paper, the correct design of the text is no less important than its semantic load. In particular, it concerns quotes. Students can choose from the most common texts. Next, we will examine in detail how to quote in the paper and give some practical examples.

General guidelines for how to cite in a research paper

Abuse of direct quotations is a sign of low-quality research paper reflecting its “bloated” volume. In addition, non-unique quoted passages reduce the overall uniqueness of the paper. And this is unsatisfactory; its value leads to a decrease in the student’s score.

Large quotations are permissible only in exceptional cases, for example, when it is necessary to analyze excerpts from works of art, to consider author’s means of artistic expression, manner of presentation, etc.

Citing references is not always appropriate. References to such literature are permitted only in the introduction and, if necessary, the definition of terms.

How to cite in a research paper: the most common ways

There are two types of citations:

  • direct
  • indirect

In turn, direct quotes can be entered into the text of the work:

  • with indication of the author
  • with reference to the author and source

Next, we consider all the ways of quoting in research papers in more detail.

Indirect quoting for how to cite in a research paper

By design, this method is the easiest. Quote can be changed, use it literally optional. A student can quote in his own words.

The quote is in quotes.

If in the sentence the text is in front of it, then a colon is put in front of it.

If the text is after it, then after it is written with a small letter.

This can be linked to various parties with a colon, a comma and a dash, respectively.

How to give an incomplete quote? Sometimes it is necessary to quote without available parts of it. In this case, the words that are omitted are replaced by a triple-point. Such a design can be located at any place of separation – at the end, in the middle or at the very beginning. At the beginning of the phrase, its continuation is written with a small letter. In one quote several passages can be replaced at once, at the discretion of the author of the work.